further reading.

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nekton falls – further reading:

Allison, P.A.; Smith, C.R.; Kukert, H.; Deming, J.W. & Bennett, B.A. (1991): Deep-water taphonomy of vertebrate carcasses: a whale skeleton in the bathyal Santa Catalina Basin. – Paleobiology 17: 78-89.

Amano, K. & Little, C.T.S. (2005): Miocene whale-fall community from Hokkaido, northern Japan. – Paleogeog. Paleoclimatol. Paleocol. 215: 345-356.

Baco, A.R.; Smith, C.R.; Peek, A.S.; Roderick, G.K. & Vrijenhoek, R.C. (1999): The phylogenetic relationships of whale-fall vesicomyid clams based on mitochondrial COI DNA sequences. – Marine Ecology Progress Series, 182: 137-147.

Bozzano, A. & Sardΰ, F. (2002): Fishery discard consumption rate and scavenging activity in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 59: 15–28.

Britton, J.C. & Morton, B. (1994): Marine carrion and scavengers. – Oceanogr., Mar. Biol. A. Rev., 32: 369-434.

Broad, W.J. (1997): The Universe Below : Discovering the Secrets of the Deep Sea. – Simon & Schuster, 432 pp.; New York.

Butman, C.A.; Carlton, J.T. & Palumbi, S.R. (1996): Whales don’t fall like snow: reply to Jelmert. – Conservation Biology, 10: 655–657.

Butman, C.A.; Carlton, J.T. & Palumbi, S.R. (1995): Whaling effects on deep-sea biodiversity. – Conservation Biology, 9: 462–464.

Coghlan, A. (1998): From a watery grave: bacteria that feast on whale bones reveal the secret of cool washes. – New Sci., Vol. 157, No. 2125: 24.

Collins, M.A.; Yau, C.; Nolan, C.P.; Bagley, P.M. & Priede, I.G. (1999): Behavioural observations on the scavenging fauna of the Patagonian slope. – J. Mar. Biol. Ass. UK., 79: 963-970.

Collins, M.A., Priede, I.G., & Bagley, P.M. (1999): In situ comparison of activity in two deep-sea scavenging fishes occupying different depth zones. – Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B, 266: 2011-2016.

Collins, M.A.; Priede, I.G.; Addison, S.; Smith, A. & Bagley, P.M. (1998): Acoustic tracking of the dispersal of organic matter by scavenging fishes in the deep-sea. – Hydrobiologia, 371/372: 181-186.

Dahl, E. (1979): Deep-sea carrion feeding amphipods: evolutionary patterns in niche adaptation. – Oikos, 33: 167-175.

Dahlgren, T.; Glover, A.G.; Baco, A.R. & Smith, C.R. (2004): Fauna of whale falls: systematics and ecology of a new polychaete (Annelida: Chrysopetalidae) from the deep Pacific Ocean. – Deep-sea Research I, 51: 1873-1887.

Debenham, N.J.; Lambshead, P.J.D.; Ferrero, T.J. & Smith, C.R. (2004): The impact of whale falls nematode abundance in the deep sea. – Deep-Sea Research I, 51: 701-706.

Deming, J.W.; Reysenbach, A.-L.L.; Macko, S.A. & Smith, C.R. (1997): Evidence for the microbial basis of a chemoautotrophic invertebrate community at a whale fall on the deep seafloor: bone-colonizing bacteria and invertebrate endosymbionts. – Microsc. Res. Tech. 37: 162-170.

Feldman, R.A.; Shank, T.M.; Black, M.B.; Baco, A.R.; Smith, C.R. & Vrijenhoek, R.C. (1998): Vestimentiferan on a whale fall. – Biological Bulletin, 194: 116-119.

Glover, A.G.; Goetze, E.; Dahlgren, T.G. & Smith, C.R. (2005): Morphology, reproductive biology and genetic structure of the whale-fall and hydrothermal vent specialist, Bathykurila guaymasensis Pettibone, 1989 (Annelida: Polynoidae). – Marine Ecology, 26: 223–234.

Goedert, J.L.; Squires, R.L. & Barnes, L.G. (1995): Paleoecology of whale-fall habitats from deep-water Oligocene rocks, Olympic Peninsula, Washington state. – Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 118: 151-158.

Haag, A. (2005): Whale Fall. – Nature, Vol. 433: 566-567.

Haeckel, E. (1890): Plankton-Studien : Vergleichende Untersuchungen όber die Bedeutung und Zusammensetzung der pelagischen Fauna und Flora. – Gustav Fischer, 105 pp.; Jena.

Heezen, B.C. & Hollister, C.D. (1971): The face of the deep. – Oxford University Press, 659 pp.; New York, Oxford, London, Toronto.

Hogler, J.A. (1995): Reply to: Martill, D.; Cruickshank, A.R.I. & Taylor, M.A. (1995): Speculations on the Role of Marine Reptile Deadfalls in Mesozoic Deep-sea Paleoecology. – Palaios, Vol. 10: 97.

Hogler, J.A. (1994): Speculations on the Role of Marine Reptile Deadfalls in Mesozoic Deep-sea Paleoecology. – Palaios, Vol. 9: 42-47.

Jelmert, A. & Oppen-Berntsen, D.O. (1996): Whaling and Deep-Sea Biodiversity. – Conservation Biology, 10: 653-654.

Jones, E.G.; Collins, M.A.; Bagley, P.M.; Addison, S. & Priede, I.G. (1998): The fate of cetacean carcasses in the deep sea: observations on consumption rates and succession of scavenging species in the abyssal north-east Atlantic Ocean. – Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 265: 1119-1127.

Kaim, A.; Kobayashi, Y; Echizenya, H.; Jenkins, R.G. & Tanabe, K. (2008): Chemosynthesis-based associations on Cretaceous plesiosaurid carcasses. - Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 53 (1): 97-104.

Kiel, S. & Little, C.T.S. (2006): Cold-Seep Mollusks Are Older Than the General Marine Mollusk Fauna. – Science, Vol. 313: 429-431.

King, N.J.; Bagley, P.M. & Priede, I.G. (2006): Depth zonation and latitudinal distribution of deep-sea scavenging demersal fishes of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 42 to 53°N. – Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 319: 263-274.

Martill, D.M.; Cruickshank, A.R.I. & Taylor, M.A. (1995): Speculations on the role of marine reptile deadfalls in Mesozoic deep-sea paleoecology; comment. – Palaios, Vol. 10: 96-97.

Naganuma, R.; Wada, H. & Fujioka, K. (1996): Biological community and sediment fatty acids associated with the deep-sea whale skeleton at the Torishima seamount. – Journal of Oceanography, 52: 1–15.

Pettibone, M.H. (1993): Polynoid polychaetes associated with a whale skeleton in the bathyal Santa Catalina Basin. – Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 106: 678-688.

Priede, I.G.; Bagley, P.M.; Armstrong, J.D.; Smith, K.L. jr.; Merrett, N.R. (1991): Direct measurement of active dispersal of food-falls by deep-sea demersal fishes. – Nature, Vol. 351: 647-649.

Rouse, G.W.; Goffredi, S.K. & Vrijenhoek, R.C. (2004): Osedax: bone-eating marine worms with dwarf males. – Science, 305: 668–671.

Schuller, D.; Kadko, D. & Smith, C.R. (2004): Use of 210Pb/226Ra disequilibria in the dating of deep-sea whale falls. – Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 218: 277-289.

Smith, A.; Priede, I.G.; Bagley, P.M. & Addison, S.W. (1997): Interception and dispersal of artificial foodfalls by scavenging fishes in the abyssal North-East Atlantic: early-season observations prior to annual deposition of phytodetritus. – Mar. Biol., 128: 329-336.

Smith, C.R. (1992): Whale falls: chemosynthesis at the deep-sea floor. – Oceanus, 35: 74-78.

Smith, C.R. (1985): Food for the deep-sea: utilization, dispersal and flux of nekton falls at the Santa Catalina Basin floor. – Deep-Sea Research, 32: 417-442.

Smith, C.R. (1983): Enrichment, disturbance and deep sea community structure: the significance of large organic falls to bathyal benthos in Santa Catalina Basin. – PhD Dissertation, University of California, San Diego, 310 pp.

Smith, C.R.; Baco, A.R. & Hannides, A.K. (2004): Dead Whales, Rotting Wood and Putrid Kelp: Biogenic Chemosynthetic Habitats at the Deep-Sea Floor. – ASLO-TOS 2004 Ocean Research Conference, Honolulu, Hawai`i, USA, February 15th-20th, 2004.

Smith, C.R. & Baco, A.R. (2003): Ecology of whale falls at the deep-sea floor. – Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review, 41: 311–354.

Smith, C.R.; Baco, A.R. & Glover, A.G. (2002): Faunal succession on replicate deep-sea whale falls: time scales and vent-seep affinities. – Cahiers de Biologie Marine, 43: 293–297.

Smith, C.R.; Maybaum, H.L.; Baco, A.R.; Pope, R.H.; Carpenter, S.D.; Yager, P.L.; Macko, S.A. & Deming, J.W. (1998): Sediment community structure around a whale skeleton in the deep Northeast Pacific: Macrofaunal, microbial and bioturbation effects. – Deep-Sea Research Part II, Top. St. Oce., 45: 335-364.

Smith, C.R.; Kukert, H.; Wheatcroft, R.A.; Jumars, P.A. & Deming, J.W. (1989): Vent fauna on whale remains. – Nature, Vol. 341: 27-28.

Smith, S.E. & Baco, A.R. (1998): Whale-fall communities in the deep north-east Pacific: succession and species diversity. – Abstract no. 0532H-3 in the 1998 Ocean Sciences Meeting, San Diego, CA., Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 79: 114.

Solan, M.; Germano, J.D.; Rhoads, D.C.; Smith, C.; Michaud, E.; Parry, D.; Wenzhφfer, F.; Kennedy, B.; Henriques, C.; Battle, E.; Carey, D.; Iocco, L.; Valente, R.; Watson, J. & Rosenberg, R. (2003): Towards a greater understanding of pattern, scale and process in marine benthic systems: a picture is worth a thousand worms. – Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 285–286 (2003): 313– 338.

Soltwedel, T.; Jurzenka, K. von; Premke, K. & Klages, M. (2003): What a lucky shot! Photographic evidence for a medium-sized natural food-fall at the deep seafloor. – Oceanologia Acta, 26: 623-628.

Stevens, J.D.; Bonfil, R.; Dulvy, N.K. & Walker, P.A. (2000): The effects of fishing on sharks, rays, and chimaeras (chondrichthyans), and the implications for marine ecosystems. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 57: 476–494.

Stockton, W.L. & DeLaca, T.E. (1982): Food falls in the deep sea: occurrence, quality and significance. – Deep-Sea Res., 29: 157-169.